BAFRA Rules Exam Questions 2005

Each scenario has four questions – two of which are True and two are False. Unless otherwise stated, everything is normal.
See the Rubric for a full set of assumptions/instructions.


4th and 7 from Team B’s 49-yard line. A13’s untouched airborne punt is caught by B34 in his own end zone. Simultaneous with making the catch, B34 is contacted by A85. The ball is declared dead in the end zone
If the covering Official is sure that the contact by A85 was simultaneous with the catch, it is a foul. If there is any doubt in the Official’s mind, and he/she thinks that the catch may just have preceded the contact, the benefit of the doubt must be given in favour of A85.
It is a foul if a Team A player is within 2 yards of a Team B player in position to catch a scrimmage kick.
If the covering Official considers a foul has been committed on the above play, Team B will next put the ball into play at their own 35-yard line.
On a five man crew, the initial position for the Back Judge on a punt is slightly behind and slightly to the side of the deepest receiver. About 5 yards behind and 5 yards to the side is an appropriate distance.


Team A’s legal forward pass is intercepted by B27 on his own 2-yard line. He was running backwards as he caught it and he is hit in the end zone by A88 causing him to fumble the ball, which rolls back into the field of play.
The ball hits the pylon as it passes, but does not touch the sideline. The ball continues in play.
The ball goes out of bounds at the 1-yard line. The ball belongs to Team B in the End Zone
The ball goes out of bounds at the 1-yard line. The ball will next be snapped at the 20-yard line
After the ball is dead, it is noticed that B27 is not on his team’s roster. He is disqualified and may not continue in the game.


4th and 4 from Team B’s 19-yard line. Team A line up to attempt a field goal with A5 holding for kicker A19. After A19 has kicked the ball, which scores a field goal, an Official notices that A5 has unusually long cleats. On checking, the cleats are found to be � inch long.
A5 must be automatically disqualified.
Score 3 points to Team A.
Shoe cleats may not be made of any metallic material.
As the ball is kicked from outside of B’s 20-yard line, on a five-man crew only the Back Judge needs to go behind the posts to rule on the success or otherwise of the field goal attempt. This is known as the “One Judge” mechanic.


A free kick by A19 is muffed in Team B’s end zone by B26. The ball rolls forward into the field of play and is picked up by B39 at Team B’s 3-yard line. B39 advances the ball to B’s 25-yard line where his forward progress is stopped inbounds. A45 and A69 were both at Team A’s 36-yard line when the ball was kicked.
The clock will start when the ball crosses the goal line after having been touched by B26.
If they accept the penalty for encroachment, Team B may opt to next put the ball into play from their own 30-yard line.
As B39’s forward progress was stopped inbounds, the clock for the next down will start on the ready for play.
As the kick was muffed by B26, had a Team A player recovered the ball, he would be permitted to advance it.


It is 3rd and 27 from Team A’s 8-yard line. A61 snaps the ball with a hand-to-hand snap to QB A4 who pitches the ball back to A32 who is standing on his own 1-yard line. A32 punts the ball which comes to rest, in bounds, at Team B’s 48-yard line. After the snap but before the kick, wide receiver A82 blocks B29 below the waist at Team A’s 13-yard line and B44 blocks wide receiver A97 below the waist at A’s 12-yard line. Both blocks are away from the original position of the ball
The block by A82 is illegal.
The block by B44 is illegal.
Penalties for a live ball foul by each team during the same down always offset each other.
If no player attempts to secure the loose ball, it belongs to Team B at their own 48-yard line.


4th and 8 from Team A’s 20-yard line. Team A Line up in punt formation with only ten men on the field. Prior to the snap of the ball, the Head Coach of Team A, who is in the vicinity of his coaching box, notices this and signals to the wing Official on his side of the field that he wants to call a time out. Team A have all of their time outs remaining.
The request for the time out by the Head Coach should be granted.
Any player who participated in the previous down may call a time out after the ball is declared dead and before the snap provided he is between the nine-yard marks.
Team A may legally participate in the down with ten players provided that at least seven are on the offensive scrimmage line when the ball is snapped and the requirements for player numbering are met.
The Official with primary responsibility for counting Team A should indicate that there are less than eleven players on the field by tapping his right shoulder with his right hand.


It is 4th down and 2 yards to go on Team B’s 40-yard line. Team A lines up in shotgun formation. QB A11 fakes a pass and hands off to running back A24, who runs to Team B’s 28-yard line where he fumbles the ball. The ball is recovered at the 24-yard line by A80 who advances to the 12-yard line where the Umpire blows his whistle while A80 is still advancing. During A80’s run B9 illegally hits A92 in the back. After the play is over, B9 taunts A92.
Inadvertent whistle provisions apply
If this is B9’s second unsportsmanlike conduct foul during this game the he is ejected by rule
Team A will next put the ball into play, 1st and Goal from the Team B 7-yard line
In the event of a disqualifying foul, the Referee, accompanied by another Official as witness, shall notify the Head Coach of the number of the player ejected and the nature of the foul


It is 4th and 7 from Team A’s 38-yard line. Team A line up in scrimmage kick formation. The snap by A90 goes over the head of punter A13 who has to recover it on his own 20-yard line. Seeing he is about to be tackled he throws a forward pass to A82 who catches it and has his forward progress stopped inbounds at Team B’s 49-yard line. Left guard A64 was at Team A’s 42-yard line when the pass was thrown.
As Team A were in scrimmage kick formation, Team A are not required to have five players numbered 50 through 79 on the line of scrimmage, even though no scrimmage kick was made.
As Team A were in scrimmage kick formation, there was no restriction on A64 advancing downfield prior to the pass being thrown.
To be in scrimmage kick formation, Team A must have at least one player nine or more yards behind the neutral zone and no player in a position to take a hand-to-hand snap. It must also be obvious that a kick may be attempted.
The game clock will start on the ready for play.


Following a touchdown, Team A attempt to kick for an extra point from Team B’s 3-yard line. During the try, B74 attempts to punch A67 but there is no contact. The kick is successful
Team A may keep the score and have the penalty assessed on the succeeding kick off.
If Team A accept the penalty and wish to repeat the try in order to attempt a 2-point conversion, they may opt to snap the ball from any point between the inbound lines on the 1 1/2-yard line.
B74 is guilty of fighting A67.
As B74 did not make contact with A67, disqualification is not mandatory but at the discretion of the Official calling the foul.


A13’s punt is fielded at Team B’s 10-yard line and is returned to Team A’s 20-yard line by B27. In celebration at the yards gained on his return, B27 runs into his Team area carrying the ball, then runs, still with the ball to celebrate with some supporters. After the chains have been positioned and the ready for play whistle has blown, B27 then shouts obscene abuse at the Officials and his opponents.
Team B will next put the ball in play, 1st and 25 from midfield.
In taking the ball from the field of play, B27 has committed a delay of game penalty.
In positioning the chains, the Linesman must ensure that they are moved back at least five feet from the sidelines (unless ground conditions do not permit).
B27 shall be disqualified from the game.


It is 1st down and 10 on B’s 28-yard line. It is late in the 4th quarter with the score tied. QB A11, standing directly behind the center, receives a snap, steps backwards and then hands the ball sideways to halfback A43. B72, a defensive end, grabs lineman A56, and pulls him out of the way in attempting to get to the runner. A11 then blocks B72 who had got past the offensive line. A11’s block is within the frame of his body, but initial contact with B72 occurs below the waist behind the neutral zone towards the original spot of the ball. A11’s block opens a hole, and A43 runs past the defensive end, breaks two tackles near the line of scrimmage, and runs into team B’s end zone. A43 carries the game ball off the field with him in celebration, but a different game ball is returned by a ball-boy into the field of play causing no delay in setting up for the try.
A11’s block below the waist is illegal.
B72 illegally held A56. Penalty 10 yards from the basic spot.
A43’s carrying of the ball off of the field constitutes unsportsmanlike conduct. Penalise 15 yards on the try or the succeeding kick-off..
The Line Judge is primarily responsible for briefing the ball-boys in the appropriate procedures. This is true whenever there is a Line Judge regardless of crew size.


For a try, team A line up in a scrimmage kick formation with snapper A55 having his hands on the ball near one hash mark near the holder and the kicker, and the other six linemen are near the other hash mark with A80 as the tight end. Four of these linemen are numbered 50-79. A37, the holder, receives the snap and fakes holding for a kick. A14, the kicker, kicks air, then A37 stands up and throws the ball downfield to A80 who catches the ball in the end zone. During the play, B12 runs into A14 immediately after the fake kick. During A80’s run, B9 uses his helmet to ram A17, who is not involved with the play.
The formation is legal
A14 is not a kicker, and therefore gets no protection. B12 commits no foul.
A80 is ineligibly downfield. Penalise 5 yards from the previous spot and repeat the try
B9 has committed a personal foul. Team A can accept the score with the enforcement of the personal foul taking place on the subsequent kick-off


It is 1st down and 10 yards to go on Team A’s 16-yard line. QB A11 drops back to pass, but can find no-one open and manages to scramble to Team A’s 27-yard line where he is hit by defensive back B7 and fumbles the ball. B10 recovers the ball and advances to Team A’s 20-yard line. Prior to A11’s scramble, defensive back B95 held wide receiver A86 at Team A’s 32-yard line and lineman A74 advanced 7 yards downfield.
As there was no forward pass, B95 cannot have committed illegal interference and so committed no foul.
A74 is ineligible downfield.
The clock will start on the snap
If A93 had been illegally in motion at the snap then all fouls would offset and the down would be replayed


By rule…
Any decorative markings in end zones within five feet of any line must be reported.
The type of device to be used as a 25-second clock is determined by the game management.
Separate changing rooms must be provided for the home team, the visiting team and the Officials. These must be available 1� hours prior to the scheduled kick off.
The size of the ball shall be measured after it has been inflated to 13 PSI


Team A line up, with QB A95 positioned 7 yards behind the Neutral Zone and no player in position to receive a hand-to-hand snap. A89 is the center and, of the six other players on the line of scrimmage, exactly four of them are wearing numbers in the range 50-79. A58 and A67, the two guards, are lined up so that each has their centremost foot placed inside A89’s foot (with legs locked). Prior to the snap and after A89 has touched the ball, A82, a wide receiver obviously positioned on the end of his scrimmage line, goes into motion behind the line of scrimmage. He is in motion parallel with the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap. All other players apart from A82 remain stationary until the snap.
The formation is illegal. Dead ball foul – Penalise 5 yards from the previous spot.
If it were obvious that a kick may be attempted, then the numbering is legal.
The interlocked legs are illegal. Live ball foul – Penalise 5 yards from the previous spot.
The motion is illegal and incurs a penalty. Penalise 5 yards from the previous spot


4th and 1 from Team B’s 40-yard line. Team A line up in punt formation and after the ready for play but before the ball is snapped, there is a sudden bolt of lightning followed some ten seconds later by a clap of thunder.
The Referee and both head coaches must agree to take the players and Officials from the field for their own safety.
All Officials should record the down, the team in possession, the position of the ball and the chain and the time remaining.
If the game cannot be resumed, League policy shall determine whether the game shall be resumed at a later date or terminated, and the final score.
When the game restarts, as the ready for play had been sounded prior to the game being suspended, both teams must resume with the same eleven players.


3rd and goal on Team B’s 5-yard line. The score is A27-B28. Team A are in shotgun formation. QB A11 muffs the snap, recovers the ball and then intentionally grounds the pass from the 12-yard line. During the down, A79 clips B97 on the 8-yard line. 2 seconds remain in the second half.
Irregardless of whether any penalty is accepted or declined, the clock will start on the snap.
If the penalty for the clip is accepted, the ball will be placed on the 23-yard line for the next down.
Intentionally grounding the ball when not to save loss of yardage incurs a 5-yard penalty and loss of down
When in doubt, A11’s pass was forward rather than backward.


4th down and 15. A13 punts from his own 20-yard line. During the kick B37 holds A82 at Team A’s 28-yard line. B24 catches the ball at B’s 39-yard line then advances the ball to B’s 46-yard line where he goes out of bounds. He is then tackled by A68 some 6 yards beyond the sideline.
The foul by B37 should be assessed from the end of the run.
The fouls by B37 and A68 offset.
The penalty for defensive holding is 10 yards from the basic spot.
In the above situation on a four-man crew, the Umpire should be prepared to move towards the sideline or even out of bounds if necessary to deter or observe continuing action.


It is 3rd down with the goal line to go at the 4-yard line. A29 sprints into the game replacing A20 who becomes a replaced player. Immediately, team A rushes to the line of scrimmage to obtain an advantage against team B struggling to respond to the substitution.
The Officials should not permit the ball to be snapped until Team B has had an opportunity to place a substitute in position and A20 has left the field.
The Referee is expected to warn A20 or the Team A captain, that A20 must leave the huddle within 3 seconds or else he will violate the substitution rule
Should the 25 second clock expire and Team B has neither appeared ready to play, nor made a valid attempt to substitute for the departing player, then a delay penalty will be charged to Team B.
Attempting to confuse the defense with a simulated substitution is still a foul that always incurs a 5-yard penalty from the succeeding spot


4th and 7 from Team A’s 48-yard line. A13 punts the ball which goes untouched out of bounds at Team B’s 19-yard line. In attempting to block the kick, B57 comes close to A13 but does not make any contact with him. A13 then immediately falls to the floor, feigning injury as though he had been illegally blocked by B57.
A13 has simulated being roughed. This is unsportsmanlike conduct and is therefore a live-ball foul penalised as a dead ball foul. If they accept the penalty, Team B will next put the ball into play, 1st and 10 from their own 34-yard line.
The penalty for roughing the kicker is 15 yards from the previous spot and an automatic 1st down when not in conflict with other rules.
If there is doubt as to whether it is running into the kicker or roughing the kicker, the foul is roughing the kicker.
Prior to a punt, the Referee should stand wider than the tight end position and 3 to 5 yards behind the kicker. On a four man crew, the Referee should favour the Line Judge’s side of the field; on a larger crew the Referee should favour the side of the field of the punter’s kicking foot.10:06 16/04/2005


3rd and 2 on Team B’s 16-yard line. QB A12 pitches the ball backward to A42 from the 17-yard line. A42 muffs the ball on the 18-yard line and the ball rolls forward and out of bounds on the 13-yard line. During the backward pass, A66 held B97 on the 17-yard line.
If the penalty is declined then Team A will have a 1st down.
If the penalty is accepted, the next play will be Team A’s ball, 3rd and 12 from the 26-yard line.
The clock will start on the Ready for Play.
The covering Official should mark the 18-yard line with a bean-bag as this is a possible enforcement spot.


It is 3rd down with the goal line to go at the 4-yard line. In an attempt to stop the clock QB A11, takes a quick snap and immediately throws the ball downwards hitting the leg of left guard A73. The ball falls incomplete.
On a five man crew, the Back Judge should begin this play on the end line.
A73 is an originally ineligible receiver so this is illegal touching of a forward pass. Penalise 5 yards from the previous spot.
As the ball is thrown so that it hits another player, this is not a legal throw to save time. Penalise 5 yards from the spot of the throw and loss of down.
The ball will next be put into play by team A. 4th down and goal at the 4-yard line.


1st and 10 from the A20-yard line. QB A11 is positioned under the center and receives the snap directly. He drops back and surreptitiously hands the ball forwards to A44, and continues to run towards the sideline as if he still has the ball when he is deliberately clipped by B76. A44 throws a forward pass from the 10-yard line to eligible A88 who catches it at the 25-yard line. B69 hits A44 well after the ball had been passed.
The clip by B76 is legal
The hit by B69 cannot be called roughing the passer as he is not the QB, but may be a personal foul
The pass by A44 is not legal as it is the 2nd pass
A11 is an eligible receiver


1st and 10 on the 50-yard line. QB A11 is scrambling near the sideline and throws a forward pass from his 44-yard line. The pass is caught by ineligible receiver A67 on Team A’s 49-yard line and advanced to Team B’s 38-yard line where he is downed. No other Team A player has a reasonable opportunity to catch the ball.
The touching by A67 is illegal.
The forward pass was legal.
If all penalties are accepted, the ball will next be put into play by Team A, 2nd and 16.
B27 was not wearing a mouthpiece during the down – this will not offset any Team A foul.


A19 kicks off and the ball is caught by B27 at Team B’s 23-yard line. As he catches the ball, he is in contact with B44 who has one foot outside of the boundary line.
Ruling: this is a free kick out of bounds.
Following a free kick out of bounds, if the captain of the receiving team accepts the penalty he has only two choices: he may require the kick to be retaken 5 yards from the previous spot or may elect to put the ball into play 30 yards beyond Team A’s restraining line at the inbounds spot.
It is the Umpire’s responsibility to make sure that the kicking tee has been removed from the field prior to the next down.
After the ready for play signal and prior to the free kick, all players of both teams must have been between the nine-yard marks.


1st and 10 at Team A’s 20-yard line. QB A11 throws a legal forward pass which is caught by A88 at Team A’s 40-yard line.
The pass was muffed by eligible A81 at the 36-yard line before being caught by A88. This is an incomplete pass.
A88 was pushed out of bounds by B27 at the 25-yard line and did not attempt to return until he reached the 38-yard line. This is illegal touching – penalise Team A 5 yards from the spot of the foul and loss of down.
Before the pass was thrown, A77 was guilty of holding at the 19-yard line. Penalise from the previous spot.
A88 was airborne when he received the pass, but before returning to ground he was pushed out of bounds by B27. The pass is incomplete.


It is 2nd down with 10-yards to go on team A’s 37-yard line. Team A attempts a “statue-of-liberty” play. In this trick play, QB A11, fakes a pass, then just stands there with the ball in his raised hand (like the Statue of Liberty) and A24, a halfback split wide, runs a crossing route, taking the ball out of A11’s hand and runs with it towards the sidelines. On this occasion the play works, and A24 runs to A’s 46-yard line before being forced out of bounds. Defensive player B9 charged into A11 after the ball had obviously left his hands and he was obviously out of the play.
Normally, A24 crosses behind A11, and takes the ball from his hand from the rear. If he ran in front of A11, and received the ball, then A11 would be illegally handing the ball forward. Penalise 5 yards from the spot of the foul; also loss of down
The Umpire when he reads “pass” should have moved quickly towards the line of scrimmage to observe linemen illegally downfield
B9 committed a personal foul of roughing the passer. Although the pass was not thrown, A11 is still in a defenceless position, vulnerable to injury, and entitled to protection.
Assuming that all penalties are accepted, the ball will next be put in play by Team A, 1st and 10 from B’s 39-yard line


With 58 seconds remaining in the game and Team B leading 29-28, Team A kick off from midfield following the administration of a penalty. A13 kicks the ball which bounces off the ground and is muffed by B47 at his own 42-yard line. Simultaneously with B47 touching the ball he is blocked in his front above the waist by A94. The ball is recovered by A83 at B’s 41-yard line
The block by A94 is illegal. Penalise Team A 5 yards from the previous spot.
The recovery by A83 is illegal as the ball has not broken the plane of and remained beyond Team B’s restraining line.
A13 must kick the ball from some point on or behind Team A’s restraining line on or between the inbound lines.
It is for the Referee to instruct the other Officials to switch to their onside kick positions if he/she considers that the state of the game makes an onside kick likely.


It is a very windy day and during a 9-a-side youth-kitted game, the ball blows from the tee as A19 prepares to kick off. A35 kneels to hold the ball for him and as the ball is kicked, A35’s left foot is behind Team A’s 35-yard line but his right knee is grounded beyond it.
A35 is offside. If the penalty is accepted, Team A must re-kick the ball from their 30-yard line.
Team A must have a minimum of three players each side of the kicker when the ball is kicked.
In youth-kitted football, no blocking below the waist whatsoever is permitted on a free kick.
If the ball blows from the kicking tee, Team A shall not kick the ball and the covering Official shall sound his/her whistle immediately.


It is 2nd down with 9 yards to go from Team B’s 27-yard line. Team A lines up with exactly six men on the line of scrimmage, three of whom are numbered between 50 and 79. Shortly prior to the snap, defensive lineman B29 makes a quick, abrupt movement in an obvious attempt to cause an offensive player to false start.
This formation would be legal in 9-man youth kitted football
The Official should only sound his whistle should a Team A player false start in response to B29’s movement. This movement is legal.
In adult football, B29’s movement constitutes an illegal delay of the game
In youth kitted football, B29’s movement constitutes unsportsmanlike conduct


Runner A88 gains 20 yards and then is gang-tackled in-bounds at the B 25-yard line by Team B and brought down. However, he lands on a Team B player and nothing other than his hands and feet have touched the ground. He has continued moving forwards and gets immediately to his feet and tosses the ball to the Umpire…
… who is standing at the B 30-yard line and who does not touch the ball which falls to the ground. The ball continues in play.
… who catches the ball. The ball continues in play.
… who is standing at the B30-yard line, but A36 catches the ball and runs it into B’s end zone – it was 4th down. Ruling: touchdown
… who is standing at the B 20-yard line and who muffs the catch and the ball falls to the ground. The ball continues in play.


On the opening kick off, A19 kicks the ball to B27 who catches it at his own 3-yard line and advances to B’s 10-yard line where his forward progress is stopped inbounds
On a 6-man crew, the Umpire shall ensure that Team A’s formation restrictions are met.
The covering Official should mark the spot where B27 catches the ball with a bean bag, as this is a possible enforcement spot.
A44 goes out of bounds with no Team B player near him. He may legally return inbounds during the down, but may not touch the ball until it has been touched by a Team B player.
An inbounds player touched by a ball batted by an opponent is not deemed to have touched the ball.


On a very windy day, A13 punts the ball, 4th and 11 from Team A’s 3-yard line. The ball crosses the line of scrimmage to Team A’s 10-yard line where, still in flight and untouched it is blown back across the neutral zone and comes to rest in Team A’s end zone. A43 picks up the ball and advances to Team A’s 18-yard line where his forward progress is ended in bounds
Ruling: The ball was dead in the end zone – award a safety to Team B.
The recovery and advancing of the ball by A43 was legal. Award a first down to Team A. As the ball became dead inbounds, the clock will start on the ready for play.
The original impetus responsible for the ball being in Team A’s end zone was imparted by A13. This original impetus is not changed when the ball at rest is moved when touched by a player or Official
Had A13 caught the ball as it blew back, he could have kicked it for a second time provided he was still behind the neutral zone.


2nd and 20 at Team A’s 20-yard line. A11’s legal forward pass is completed to eligible A88 who runs to Team A’s 34-yard line where he fumbles the ball. B71 picks up the loose ball and advances to Team A’s 30-yard line where he fumbles the ball, and A27 falls on the ball at Team A’s 36-yard line. B36 was guilty of roughing the passer.
Team A may take the ball at their own 36-yard line.
If Team A accept the penalty, the ball will be placed at their 49-yard line.
If Team A accept the penalty, the ball will be placed at the Team B 49-yard line.
The clock will start on the ready.


It is 1st down with 10 yards to go from Team B’s 44-yard line. Flanker A81 goes in motion prior to the snap. He crosses from the left to the right side of the field of play and is moving towards the line of scrimmage when the ball is snapped. QB A11 fakes a hand off to A19 prior to handing the backward to A30. A19 runs, as if carrying the ball, behind the block of A69 and is deliberately tripped at the line of scrimmage by B63. A30 runs down the sideline, stepping onto the sideline at team B’s 39-yard line before being tackled in the field of play by B75 at Team B’s 33-yard line.
There are multiple live ball fouls that offset. Replay the down.
A30 was out of bounds at the 39-yard line, so B75’s tackle is automatically a late hit of a player after the ball has become dead
The ball will next be put into play 1st down and 15 from Team B’s 49-yard line
The clock will start on the subsequent snap


It is 3rd down with 6 yards to go from Team A’s 47-yard line. QB A11 tries a short forward pass towards the line of scrimmage. While the ball is in the air, wide receiver A19 is pushed by B34 towards the sideline at Team A’s 45-yard line and thereby prevented from attempting to catch the pass. B63 makes an attempt to catch the pass, but muffs the catch and the ball is caught in the air by offensive lineman A74. He lumbers up the field of play along the sideline and is finally tackled on B’s 20-yard line. After the play is over B9 walks across the field of play towards A83 and kicks him in the groin. A83 retaliates by kicking B9. The Line Judge who watched the entire incident claimed that B9 did not appear to be provoked in any way.
Both B9 and A83 must be disqualified for fighting
The BAFA disciplinary code specifies that all persons who are disqualified from a game are suspended for at least one game
There are no live-ball fouls
The ball will next be put into play by Team A. 1st down and 10 at B’s 25-yard line


4th and goal on the Team B 30-yard line. A88 catches a legal forward pass, advances to and fumbles on the 4-yard line. A55 recovers the ball in Team B’s end zone. B96 roughs the passer. 2 seconds remain in the fourth quarter.
A55 is not permitted beyond the neutral zone during a forward pass play, and so his touching of the ball is illegal.
The clock will start on the Ready.
If the penalty is accepted, Team A will snap the ball 1st and goal from the 2-yard line
Team A may decline the roughing penalty.


4th and 1 from Team B’s 9-yard line. QB A5 who is standing 6 yards behind the line of scrimmage, receives the snap and looks downfield for an open receiver. Pressure from the defense causes him to scramble and in desperation, whilst at Team B’s 11-yard line he attempts a drop kick at the goal which falls short
The kick by A5 is legal.
Team B will next put the ball into play from their own 9-yard line.
Team A were not in scrimmage kick formation.
Had a Team B player caught the ball in the end zone, the ball would have become dead. Any attempt to advance the ball by that player would result in a delay of game penalty against Team B.


4th and 3 from Team B’s 32-yard line. A19’s field goal attempt is successful. During the kick B55 commits a personal foul on A87 at Team B’s 26-yard line
Team A have the option of accepting the score or replaying the down after the enforcement of the penalty.
A19 may attempt the field goal by either a drop kick or a place kick.
If it is B55’s second personal foul in the game, he must be automatically disqualified.
On a five-man crew if not using the “One Judge” mechanic, the Line Judge has responsibility for ruling on whether the ball passes inside one upright, the Back Judge has responsibility for whether it passes inside the other upright and whether it passes above the cross bar.


The American Football field …
… must have two sets of goalposts
… must have Nine-Yard Marks
… must have all field dimension lines marked in white, but goal lines may be in a contrasting colour.
… must be at least 318 feet in length


On a 5-man crew…
… the Referee has primary responsibility for counting Team A players on a scrimmage down.
… the Umpire times any time-outs.
… the Linesman has secondary responsibility for counting Team B players on Free Kick downs.
… the Back Judge always starts on the end line if the ball is snapped from inside Team B’s 10-yard line.


Following a safety conceded by Team A and a subsequent unsportsmanlike conduct penalty by Team A …
Team A’s restraining line is their own 5-yard line.
Team A must either put the ball into play using a place kick or a punt.
At least 4 Team A players must be on each side of the kicker.
On a five-man crew, the Line Judge should count the number of players on the kicking team.


Team A attempts a try on Team B’s 3-yard line. The score is A27-B28. Time has expired in the fourth quarter. QB A16’s legal forward pass from the 12-yard line is batted by B96 on the 5-yard line. A16 catches the ball on the 12-yard line and rolls to his right to the 6-yard line where he throws a forward pass to A84. B27 pushes A84 in Team B’s end zone as A84 is reaching for the catchable forward pass. The pass falls incomplete.
There are offsetting fouls.
B96’s batting is legal
A down may be replayed even when time has expired, when that down has offsetting fouls.
Supplementary signal 27 should be used to indicate that an un-timed down is being played.


2nd and 4 at Team B’s 45-yard line. QB A11 drops back to Team A’s 46-yard line and throws a pass towards eligible A32 at Team B’s 48-yard line. Before the ball arrived, A32 was blocked below the waist by B25. The untouched pass lands inbounds at the Team B 41-yard line. A77 was blocking at Team B’s 41-yard line.
The contact by B25 was defensive pass interference
A77 is illegally downfield.
If live-ball fouls by both teams are reported to the Referee, each such foul is an offsetting foul, the penalties always cancel each other, and the down is replayed.
Intentionally Grounding the ball is a spot foul, which incurs a loss of down but no yardage penalty.


Team A scores a touchdown as time expires in the first half. During the touchdown run, B75 illegally clips. Also during the run, B63 incidentally grasps A27’s facemask. After the touchdown, B98 swears at an Official and pokes him in the chest.
The Referee shall explain the alternative penalties to the field captain of Team A, who may then elect only one of these penalties
Team A’s captain is entitled to select enforcement of B75’s foul on the try
Team A’s captain can decline B75’s penalty and elect enforcement of B63’s penalty on the try. In this case, the try shall be from the 1�-yard line.
B98 has intentionally contacted an Official and must be disqualified. Team A’s captain may elect to enforce the 15-yard penalty independently of any other penalty.


2nd and 10 on Team A’s 25-yard line. QB A11 receives a hand-to-hand snap and throws a forward pass that is intercepted by B26 at A’s 45-yard line. B26 advances and steps out of bounds at A’s 38-yard line. Before the pass is thrown, A35, who was initially positioned 3 yards directly behind A11 at the snap, blocks B55 below the waist at A’s 21-yard line.
As there was a change of possession on the play, the block by A35 was illegal.
The penalty for an illegal block below the waist by a Team A player is 15 yards from the basic spot.
The Referee’s initial position should be 5 yards behind A11.
Team A’s 38-yard line may be correctly defined as any or all of: the “out-of-bounds spot”; the “spot where the run ends”; the “dead-ball spot”; the “succeeding spot”.


Team A is attempting a try from Team B’s 1�-yard line. QB A11 muffs the snap and the ball rolls loose at Team B’s 5-yard line. Defensive lineman B96 is about to fall on the ball, and to prevent this, A6, bats the loose ball as hard as he can towards his own goal line. B27 recovers the ball at the 50-yard line, and runs to Team A’s 10-yard line where he is tackled by A11. He fumbles and the ball is recovered by A11, who advances to A’s 14-yard line where he is tackled and the ball is again fumbled and is loose…
If the loose ball goes out of bounds across Team A’s end line, then Team B would score 1 point.
If the loose ball is recovered at Team A’s 20-yard line by A15, who runs unstopped into Team B’s end zone, then Team A would score 2 points.
If A6 was illegally in motion at the snap and B27 had committed a clipping offence during A11’s run with the ball, then these fouls would offset and the try would be replayed.
A6’s bat is illegal.


3rd and 15 at Team A’s 30-yard line. QB, A11, intends to pass to eligible A88, but A88 is held by B27 and cannot get free. A11 scrambles and eventually throws the ball forwards at his 17-yard line from a position near the sideline. The ball crosses the sideline at the 28-yard line and first hits the ground out of bounds at the 50-yard line.
The pass by A11 was legal.
When a legal forward pass crosses the neutral zone during a forward pass play, defensive holding of an eligible receiver that is not pass interference incurs a 10-yard penalty and an automatic first down.
The next play will be from Team A’s 40-yard line, 1st and 10 for Team A
If A88 had got free and been able to catch the ball, then there would have been no foul by B27.


4th and 5 from Team A’s 40-yard line. A13’s punt is partially blocked by B73 at A’s 42-yard line. The ball rolls to B’s 40 where it is first muffed by A49 then picked up by B39 at Team B’s 37-yard-line. B39 advances the ball to midfield where he is tackled by A62 and he fumbles the ball. A80 recovers the ball and advances it across Team B’s goal line.
As the ball has already been touched by B73, the touching of the ball by A49 is legal.
The covering Official should drop a bean bag at midfield
The covering Official should drop a bean bag at B’s 37-yard line.
The advance of the ball by A80 was illegal as Team A may not advance their own scrimmage kick.


It is 3rd and 7 at team A’s 27-yard line. Prior to the snap, center A71 touches the ball and then releases it to communicate with team mate A69. After the snap, QB A11 hands the ball forward to halfback A85 at the 24-yard line. A85 runs to the A’s 37-yard line where he fumbles. B6 recovers the ball at A’s 42-yard line, and runs for a touchdown. Prior to the recovery, B6 went out of bounds voluntarily, but came back in to recover the ball. A11 was roughly tackled by B73 after it was obvious that the ball had left his hands.
All the fouls offset. Replay the down
B6 is allowed to go out of bounds, therefore his conduct is perfectly legal.
The ball will next be put in play by team A.
The covering Official should mark the spot of B6’s recovery with a bean bag

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